Having your own server is good because you can control everything and you don’t have any restriction. so let’s get started.


To create a server on the cloud, just follow this link in order to have $100 free credit: https://m.do.co/c/3fde937c70fe
after signing up and logining into the panel. Go to Create Option and choose Droplets options

then choose ubuntu 20 as distribution and your plan, in this case I chose $10 per month plan

then at the bottom, choose Create Droplet.

once the droplet is created, login to the server using putty:

press Open then put the credentials of the server and that’s it. now you are in the server.

To prevent all your clients from timing out you need to edit

nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

 which is the server side configuration file add these two options:

ClientAliveInterval 120
ClientAliveCountMax 720

then restart ssh:

sudo systemctl restart sshd

adding ssh to ufw:

sudo ufw allow ssh

Configure ftp server

install ftp

apt-get install vsftpd

then open the next file:

nano /etc/vsftpd.conf

and put the next options as follows:





finally we restart the service

sudo service vsftpd restart

then you can use a ftp client to log


update first:

 apt-get update
 apt  -y install postfix sasl2-bin

then choose internet-site option

then on system mail name, I added mydomain.com

Also set a hostname for the server so that emails will show a from address with valid domain section.

sudo hostnamectl set-hostname mydomain.com

For making test, install this:

sudo apt-get install mailutils

then we will make a test

echo "Test Email message body" | mail -s "Email test subject" info@yourothermail.com

Optional: To reconfigure the postfix package:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure postfix


just install using the commands:

sudo apt install mariadb-server mariadb-client

check mysql version

mysql -V

After installing the server above, run the commands below to set a root password, remove the test database and disable the root from logging on remotely.

sudo mysql_secure_installation

When prompted, answer the questions below by following the guide.

  • Enter current password for root (enter for none): Just press the Enter
  • Set root password? [Y/n]: Y
  • New password: Enter password
  • Re-enter new password: Repeat password
  • Remove anonymous users? [Y/n]: Y
  • Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n]: Y
  • Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n]:  Y
  • Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n]:  Y

Restart MariaDB server

sudo systemctl restart mariadb.service

then we will create a new mysql user, so we will log into mysql

mysql -uroot mysql

once logged, put the next code

CREATE USER 'admin'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'yourpassword';
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'admin'@'localhost';

then you can connect from any mysql client to your server

After installing MariaDB, the commands below can be used to stopstart and enable MariaDB service to always start up when the server boots.

sudo systemctl stop mariadb.service
sudo systemctl start mariadb.service
sudo systemctl enable mariadb.service

To configure MariaDB in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS you must take into account that the configuration files are organized in the path / etc / mysql /. Typically the main file is usually my.cnf, but in the MariaDB version of the Ubuntu 20.04 repositories this file only indicates that other files are loaded in the conf.d / and mariadb.conf.d / subdirectories.

For service configuration, the most important file is 50-server.cnf.

View a List of MySQL Users

Viewing a full list of MySQL users, including the host they’re associated with, can be done with the following select statement:

SELECT User,Host FROM mysql.user;

Remove a MySQL User

To remove a user from MySQL, we again use the DROP command.

It only takes one simple command to delete a user in MySQL, but BEWARE; dropping a user can not be undone! The command is as follows:

DROP USER 'testuser'@'localhost';

 Remote access

By default MariaDB only listens for local connections, so if we are interested in allowing network connections we will have to edit the MariaDB Server configuration file in Ubuntu 20.04:

sudo nano /etc/mysql/mariadb.conf.d/50-server.cnf

We look for the bind-address directive:

bind-address =

To allow network access, simply disable the directive by inserting a # character at the beginning of the line:

# bind-address =

We save the changes and restart the service:

sudo systemctl restart mariadb

How to configure Ubuntu 20.04 UFW firewall for MariaDB
If you have the UFW firewall activated in Ubuntu 20.04 it will be necessary to add a rule to allow incoming connections to MariaDB:

sudo ufw allow mysql

The setting takes immediate effect, so we can test remote connections.

To check remote access, we will connect from another machine that has the mysql console client installed, specifying as parameters the IP address or domain of the Ubuntu 20.04 server and the user with whom we want to access MariaDB:

install and configure mariadb in ubuntu 20.04 focal fossa
And we will verify that the connection is possible, being able to work as in a local terminal.

You can use these commands to allow port 3306 through UFW

sudo ufw allow out 3306/tcp   

sudo ufw allow in 3306/tcp

And to check that the rules have been added

 sudo ufw status

at this point, you should have your ufw like this: 

Installing MariaDB on Ubuntu 18.04 from the MariaDB Repositories

At the time of writing this article, the latest version of MariaDB available from the official MariaDB repositories is MariaDB version 10.3. Before continuing with the next step you should visit the MariaDB Repository page and check if there is a new version available.

To install MariaDB 10.3 on your Ubuntu 18.04 server perform the following steps:

First add the MariaDB GPG key to your system using the following command:

sudo apt-key adv --recv-keys --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80 0xF1656F24C74CD1D8

Once the key is imported, add the MariaDB repository with:

sudo add-apt-repository 'deb [arch=amd64,arm64,ppc64el] http://ftp.utexas.edu/mariadb/repo/10.3/ubuntu bionic main'

If you get an error message saying add-apt-repository command not found install the software-properties-common package.

To be able to install packages from the MariaDB repository you’ll need to update the packages list:

sudo apt update

Now that the repository is added install the MariaDB package with:

sudo apt install mariadb-server

The MariaDB service will start automatically, to verify it type:

sudo systemctl status mariadb

● mariadb.service – MariaDB 10.3.8 database server
Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/mariadb.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
Drop-In: /etc/systemd/system/mariadb.service.d
Active: active (running) since Sun 2018-07-29 19:36:30 UTC; 56s ago
Docs: man:mysqld(8)
Main PID: 16417 (mysqld)
Status: “Taking your SQL requests now…”
Tasks: 31 (limit: 507)
CGroup: /system.slice/mariadb.service
└─16417 /usr/sbin/mysqld

And print the MariaDB server version, with:

mysql -V


mysql Ver 15.1 Distrib 10.3.8-MariaDB, for debian-linux-gnu (x86_64) using readline 5.2

Securing MariaDB

Run the mysql_secure_installation command to improve the security of the MariaDB installation:

sudo mysql_secure_installation

The script will prompt you to set up the root user password, remove the anonymous user, restrict root user access to the local machine and remove the test database. At the end the script will reload the privilege tables ensuring that all changes take effect immediately.

All steps are explained in detail and it is recommended to answer “Y” (yes) to all questions.

For removing mariadb: 

There are a few other options which might be of use:

sudo apt-get remove mariadb-server

This will remove just the mariadb-server package itself.

sudo apt-get remove --auto-remove mariadb-server

This will remove the mariadb-server package and any other dependant packages which are no longer needed.

If you also want to delete your local/config files for mariadb-server then this will work.

sudo apt-get purge --auto-remove mariadb-server

but be careful with that last one.


Install PHP 7.4 and Related Modules

WordPress is a PHP based application, and PHP is required to run it. Since some versions of Ubuntu don’t have the latest version of PHP, you can add a third-party PPA repository to install PHP from there.

The command below will add a third-party PPA to Ubuntu.

sudo apt-get install software-properties-common
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php

Then update and upgrade to PHP 7.4

sudo apt update

Next, run the commands below to install PHP 7.4 and related modules.

sudo apt install php7.4-fpm php7.4-common php7.4-mysql php7.4-gmp php7.4-curl php7.4-intl php7.4-mbstring php7.4-xmlrpc php7.4-gd php7.4-xml php7.4-cli php7.4-zip

After installing PHP 7.4, go and configure some basic settings that may be required for WordPress to function properly.

Run the commands below to open PHP

sudo nano /etc/php/7.4/fpm/php.ini

Below are good settings to configure for most WordPress websites.

file_uploads = On
allow_url_fopen = On
short_open_tag = On
memory_limit = 256M
cgi.fix_pathinfo = 0
upload_max_filesize = 100M
max_execution_time = 360
date.timezone = America/Chicago

That should get PHP 7.4 installed with some basic settings to allow WordPress to function.


installing nginx

sudo apt install nginx


sudo ufw allow 'Nginx Full'
sudo ufw status

Next, test to make sure that there are no syntax errors in any of your Nginx files:

sudo nginx -t

If no problems were found, restart Nginx to enable your changes:

sudo systemctl restart nginx

Nginx should now be serving both of your domain names.

then you can check if it is working fine. just open a browser and put the ip of your server. it would look like this:


You can check the status of UFW by running the following command in a SSH shell:

sudo ufw status  

If UFW is not currently configured or running, you should see a message indicating that UFW is inactive:

Status: inactive  

If UFW is inactive, you can activate it by running the following commands:

sudo ufw disable  
sudo ufw enable  

After disabling and enabling UFW, it should now be in an active status.

How to fix the NGINX error “Failed to read PID from file”, quick and easy

Here’s a tip on how to fix the error message:

nginx.service: Failed to read PID from file /run/nginx.pid: Invalid argument

quick and easy. This fix should do it for you.

This behavior is a known bug, caused by a race condition between nginx and systemd. Systemd is expecting the PID file to be populated before nginx had the time to create it.

To fix the error, you have basically two options.

Option 1: create the PID file

To fix the error, you have to create the PID file manually.

Step 1. Create the directory /etc/systemd/system/nginx.service.d

Create a directory named nginx.service.d in /etc/systemd/system/:

mkdir /etc/systemd/system/nginx.service.d

Should the system complain that it already exists, ignore and  move on to Step 2.

Step 2. Print data to file


printf "[Service]\nExecStartPost=/bin/sleep 0.1\n" > /etc/systemd/system/nginx.service.d/override.conf

This is a one-liner. printf will write its output into the configuration file /etc/systemd/system/nginx.service.d/override.conf.

Step 3. Reload the daemon

Reload systemd manager configuration:

systemctl daemon-reload

This will rerun all generators, reload all unit files and recreate the entire systemd dependency tree.

Step 4. Restart NGINX

This line will restart NGINX for you:

systemctl restart nginx

The error should be fixed now.

Option 2: an alternative workaround

Another workaround is removing the PIDFile option and adding the line:

ExecStopPost=/bin/rm -f /run/nginx.pid


You can find the full documentation of this bug at:


If you experience this problem, SELinux could be preventing php-fpm from accessing a port. Just a hint. Try

journalctl -xe

for guidance on your next steps.

Create WordPress Database

When all the servers installed above, it’s now time to begin setting up WordPress environment. First, run the steps below to create a blank database for WordPress to use.

Logon to MariaDB database console using the commands below:

sudo mysql -u root -p

Then create a database called wpdb


Next, create a database user called wpdbuser and set password

CREATE USER 'wpdbuser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'new_password_here';

Then grant the user full access to the database.

GRANT ALL ON wpdb.* TO 'wpdbuser'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION;

Finally, save your changes and exit.


Download WordPress

At this point, WordPress is ready to be downloaded and installed. Use the commands below to download the latest version of WordPress.

cd /tmp
wget https://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz
tar -xvzf latest.tar.gz
sudo mv wordpress /var/www/wordpress

Then run command below to allow www-data user to own the WordPress directory.

sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/wordpress/
sudo chmod -R 755 /var/www/wordpress/

Configure Nginx

Below is where you configure Nginx VirtualHost file for the WordPress site you’re creating. This file defines how client requests are handled and processed.

Run the commands below to create a new VirtualHost file called wordpress in the /etc/nginx/sites-available/ directory.

sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/wordpress

A very good configuration settings for most WordPress site on Nginx server is below. This configuration should work great.

Copy the content below and save into the file created above.

server {
    listen 80;
    listen [::]:80;
    root /var/www/wordpress;
    index  index.php index.html index.htm;
    server_name  example.com www.example.com;

    client_max_body_size 100M;
    autoindex off;
    location / {
        try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?$args;

    location ~ \.php$ {
         include snippets/fastcgi-php.conf;
         fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php/php7.4-fpm.sock;
         fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
         include fastcgi_params;

Save the file and exit.

After saving the file above, run the commands below to enable the new site, then restart Nginx server.

sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/wordpress /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/wordpress
sudo systemctl restart nginx.service

At this stage, WordPress is ready and can be launched by going to the server’s IP or hostname.


However, if you want to enable SSL or accept web traffic over HTTPS, then you can continue below to install and configure Let’s Encrypt free SSL certificates.

Install Let’s Encrypt Wildcard Certificates

WordPress is ready to use without SSL. However, if you want to serve web traffic over HTTPS, then installing and configuring Let’s Encrypt SSL certificate or other public certificates is a must.

To install Let’s Encrypt, run the commands below.

sudo apt update
sudo apt-get install letsencrypt

The commands above will install certbot tool and all dependencies that will be allowed to make the tool function.

Let’s Encrypt provides many ways to challenge you to validate that you own the domain you want to provide SSL certificates for. You will not be able to generate certificates if you can’t prove that you own the domain you want to secure.

For wildcard certificates, the only challenge method Let’s Encrypt accepts is the DNS challenge, which we can invoke via the preferred-challenges=dns flag.

So, to generate a wildcard cert for domain *.example.com, you run the commands below:

sudo certbot certonly --manual --preferred-challenges=dns --email admin@example.com --server https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory --agree-tos -d example.com -d *.example.com

The command options above are explained below:

  • certonly:                                     Obtain or renew a certificate, but do not install
  • –manual:                                    Obtain certificates interactively
  • –preferred-challenges=dns:      Use dns to authenticate domain ownership
  • –server:                                      Specify the endpoint to use to generate
  • –agree-tos:                                 Agree to the ACME server’s subscriber terms
  • -d:                                               Domain name to provide certificates for

After executing the command above, Let’s Encrypt will provide a text string to add a text record to your DNS entry…


Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log
Plugins selected: Authenticator manual, Installer None

Would you be willing to share your email address with the Electronic Frontier
Foundation, a founding partner of the Let's Encrypt project and the non-profit
organization that develops Certbot? We'd like to send you email about EFF and
our work to encrypt the web, protect its users and defend digital rights.
(Y)es/(N)o: y
Obtaining a new certificate
Performing the following challenges:
dns-01 challenge for example.com

NOTE: The IP of this machine will be publicly logged as having requested this
certificate. If you're running certbot in manual mode on a machine that is not
your server, please ensure you're okay with that.

Are you OK with your IP being logged?
(Y)es/(N)o: y

Please deploy a DNS TXT record under the name
_acme-challenge.example.com with the following value:


Before continuing, verify the record is deployed.

Go to your DNS provider portal and add a text record for the string above and save…

Let's Encrypt DNS

Wait a few mins before continuing from the prompt.

Some DNS providers take a wile to propagate changes so it may depend on your provider’s platform.

After the changes above and Let’s encrypt is able to validate that you own the domain, you should see a successful message as below:

 - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at:
   Your key file has been saved at:
   Your cert will expire on 2020-01-09. To obtain a new or tweaked
   version of this certificate in the future, simply run certbot
   again. To non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates, run
   "certbot renew"

The wildcard certificate is now generated and ready to be used.

To verify that the certificate is ready, run the commands below:

sudo certbot certificates

That should display similar screen as below:

Found the following certs:
  Certificate Name: example.com
    Domains: *.example.com
    Expiry Date: 2020-01-05 07:48:04+00:00 (VALID: 85 days)
    Certificate Path: /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem
    Private Key Path: /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem

Now, Let’s Encrypt’s certificates are valid for 90 days… You’ll want to setup a crob job to automate the renewal process… To do that, open crontab and add the entry below:

sudo crontab -e

Then add the line below and save…

0 1 * * * /usr/bin/certbot renew >> /var/log/letsencrypt/renew.log

Save and you’re done!

With Let’s Encrypt installed, reopen Nginx VirtualHost file created above and add Let’s Encrypt configurations to secure your website.

Run the commands below open the file.

sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/wordpress

Then add the highlighted lines to the VirtualHost file as shown below:

server {
     listen 80;
     listen [::]:80;
     server_name *.example.com;
     return 301 https://$host$request_uri;
server {
    listen 443 ssl http2;
    listen [::]:443 ssl http2;
    root /var/www/wordpress;
    index  index.php;
    server_name *.example.com;

   if ($host != "example.com") {
      return 301 https://example.com$request_uri;

    ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem;
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem;
    ssl_trusted_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/chain.pem;
    ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2 TLSv1.3;
    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
    ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:50m;
    ssl_session_timeout 1d;
    ssl_session_tickets off;
    ssl_ecdh_curve X25519:sect571r1:secp521r1:secp384r1;

    client_max_body_size 100M;
    autoindex off;
    location / {
        try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?$args;

    location ~ \.php$ {
         include snippets/fastcgi-php.conf;
         fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php/php7.4-fpm.sock;
         fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
         include fastcgi_params;

After the above, restart Nginx and PHP 7.4-FPM

sudo systemctl reload nginx
sudo systemctl reload php7.4-fpm

Next, open your browser and browse to the server domain name. You should see WordPress setup wizard to complete. Please follow the wizard carefully.